Windows' MultiMedia (File) I/O (MMIO) functions were created to provide programmers with some convenient routines to help read and write RIFF files, such as WAVE files. (You should read the article upon Interchange File Format before proceeding).

The MMIO functions allow file buffering (ie, much like the standard C functions such as fopen, fread, and fwrite), which is very handy given the fact that RIFF files often involve numerous reads and writes of a few bytes. Furthermore, the Windows functions take care of this file buffering completely transparently. (ie, Your program simply tells Windows to use file buffering, and Windows takes care of all details, including allocating a buffer if you do not wish to supply one yourself).

The MMIO functions allow quick and relatively easy locating, reading, and writing of chunks. That spares your program from having to do a lot of file seeking and parsing.

The MMIO functions can work with files on disks, or file images that have been completely loaded into memory.

Finally, you can install your own "custom I/O" procedures (that are called by Windows MMIO functions such as mmioRead or mmioWrite) to support streaming data to devices other than disks or memory files. In that way, any program that uses MMIO functions to read/write data can be made to transparently stream that data to/from your device.

Opening a RIFF file for reading or writing

NOTE: For the sake of demonstration, the following examples will be shown with a WAVE file, although there are other types of RIFF files to which the MMIO functions are applicable.

The first thing you must do is open a file for reading, writing, or both. This is accomplished by calling mmioOpen(). The first argument is a pointer to a filename.

The second argument is a pointer to an MMIOOPEN structure. This does not need to be supplied unless you desire some special operations such as parsing a file image in memory, or forcing Windows to use a file buffer that you've allocated for I/O buffering, or supplying the address of a custom I/O procedure.

The third argument is some flags OR'ed together. To open a file for reading, specify the flag MMIO_READ. To create a new file to which you'll be writing data, specify the flag MMIO_WRITE. To open a file that you'll be both reading and writing, specify the flag MMIO_READWRITE.

The MMIO_EXCLUSIVE, MMIO_DENYWRITE, and MMIO_DENYREAD flags are file-sharing flags. For example, to prevent another program from simultaneously writing to the file while your program has it open, specify MMIO_DENYWRITE. MMIO_EXCLUSIVE denies other programs read or write access simultaneously. MMIO_DENYREAD prevents other programs from reading (but not writing) to the file simultaneously

Specify the MMIO_ALLOCBUF flag if you wish Windows to allocate a buffer for buffered file I/O. The default size will be 8K, but if you wish a different size, then you must supply a MMIOOPEN structure with its cchBuffer field set to the desired buffer size in bytes. If cchBuffer is 0, the default buffer size is used. (If you are providing your own I/O buffer, do not set the MMIO_ALLOCBUF flag).

There are some other flags that will be discussed later.

If successful, mmioOpen() returns a handle to the open file. This handle can be used only with MMIO functions.

So, to open the file C:\Windows\Chord.wav for reading:

HMMIO hmmio;

/* Open the file for reading with buffered I/O. Let windows use its default internal buffer */
if (!(hmmio = mmioOpen("C:\\WINDOWS\\CHORD.WAV", 0, MMIO_READ|MMIO_ALLOCBUF)))
	printf("An error opening the file!\n");

Locating and reading the Group Header

The first thing that you'll want to do after you open a file for reading is to check that it contains the desired type of data within it. For example, let's say that you want WAVE data. To check that there is a WAVE format within the open file (ie, it could be a collection of various types of data -- a CAT or LIST), and to locate the file pointer to the Group header (ie, the WAVE's RIFF header) and read in that Group Header, you need to allocate a "chunk information" (MMCKINFO) structure, set its fccType field to the ID that you wish to seek out (here it's 'WAVE'), and pass that structure to mmioDescend() with the flag MMIO_FINDRIFF. mmioDescend() then dives into the file and seeks to that RIFF WAVE header (if there is one in the file) and reads it in. (Windows docs refer to reading a chunk as "descending" into it).

Note that there is an MMIO function, mmioFOURCC(), to help you initialize the fccType field with an IFF ID. An IFF ID is 4 characters, but treated as one unsigned long in Motorola (big endian) order.

Here is an example of this:

MMCKINFO mmckinfoParent;   /* for the Group Header */

/* Tell Windows to locate a WAVE Group header somewhere in the file, and read it in.
 This marks the start of any embedded WAVE format within the file */
mmckinfoParent.fccType = mmioFOURCC('W', 'A', 'V', 'E'); 
if (mmioDescend(hmmio, (LPMMCKINFO)&mmckinfoParent, 0, MMIO_FINDRIFF))
	/* Oops! No embedded WAVE format within this file */
	printf("ERROR: This file doesn't contain a WAVE!\n");
	/* Here you may seek to, and read in other chunks */

Locating and reading a chunk

After you locate to the Group Header, the next thing that you'll likely want to do is read in the chunks of that group. For example, with the WAVE format, you'll at least want to read in the fmt chunk to get information about the WAVE, and then locate to the data chunk and read in the waveform data.

You locate the file pointer to a chunk header in much the same way as locating to a Group header. But, you'll need a second "chunk information" structure. You set its fccType field to the chunk ID that you wish to seek out (here we'll seek out a 'fmt ' chunk), and pass that structure to mmioDescend() with the flag MMIO_FINDCHUNK, and also pass the MMCKINFO that you filled in above (with the Group Header). mmioDescend() then dives into the file and seeks to that chunk's header (if there is one in the file), and read it in. (NOTE: Only the 8 byte chunk header is read in -- not the chunk's data).

Here is an example of reading the fmt chunk header:

MMCKINFO mmckinfoSubchunk;   /* for finding chunks within the Group */

/* Tell Windows to locate the WAVE's "fmt " chunk and read in its header */
mmckinfoSubchunk.ckid = mmioFOURCC('f', 'm', 't', ' '); 
if (mmioDescend(hmmio, &mmckinfoSubchunk, &mmckinfoParent, MMIO_FINDCHUNK))
	/* Oops! The required fmt chunk was not found! */
	printf("ERROR: Required fmt chunk was not found!\n");
	/* Here you may read in the chunk's data */

The mmckinfoSubchunk structure's cksize field now contains the chunk's chunkSize.

Reading a chunk's data

After reading in a chunk's header as above, you can then read in its data using the mmioRead() function.

It just so happens that a WAVEFORMATEX structure can hold all the data in WAVE's fmt chunk verbatim. So, you need to make only one call to mmioRead() to load in that chunk's data, as so:

WAVEFORMATEX waveFormat;   /* for reading a fmt chunk's data */

/* Tell Windows to read in the "fmt " chunk into a WAVEFORMATEX structure */
if (mmioRead(hmmio, (HPSTR)&waveFormat, mmckinfoSubchunk.cksize) != (LRESULT)mmckinfoSubchunk.cksize)
	/* Oops! */
	printf("ERROR: reading the fmt chunk!\n");

Ascending out of a chunk

After you've used mmioDescend() to locate and read in a chunk's header and/or data, if you plan to read any other chunks in the file, you need to "ascend" out of any chunk that you've mmioDescend()'ed into. You can't mmioDescend() into another chunk without first ascending out of any chunk you're currently reading. You use the mmioAscend() function to do so. You pass it the MMCKINFO that you used to mmioDescend() into the current chunk.

For example, to ascend out of that fmt chunk whose data we were reading above:

mmioAscend(hmmio, &mmckinfoSubchunk, 0); 

The purpose of this function is to allow the mmio functions to do some necessary, internal bookkeeping with the file position pointer inbetween you moving it from chunk to chunk via mmioDescend().

You can then use the same MMCKINFO with mmioDescend() to locate/read another chunk. (ie, You don't need a separate MMCKINFO with every chunk that you wish to read).

Closing a file

After you're done reading/writing to a file, you must close it. You do this by passing the handle which you obtained from mmioOpen() to the function mmioClose() as so:

mmioClose(hmmio, 0); 

You can download my WaveParse C example to show how to use the MMIO functions to open, read, and display some information about a WAVE file. Included are the Project Workspace files for Visual C++ 4.0, but since it is a console app, any Windows C compiler should be able to compile it. Remember that all apps should include MMSYSTEM.H and link with WINMM.LIB (or MMSYSTEM.LIB if Win3.1). This is a ZIP archive. Use an unzip utility that supports long filenames.