MIDI is an asynchronous serial interface. The baud rate is 31.25 Kbaud (+/- 1%). There is 1 start bit, 8 data bits, and 1 stop bit (ie, 10 bits total), for a period of 320 microseconds per serial byte.

The MIDI circuit is current loop, 5 mA. Logic 0 is current ON. One output drives one (and only one) input. To avoid grounding loops and subsequent data errors, the input is opto-isolated. It requires less than 5 mA to turn on. The Sharp PC-900 and HP 6N138 optoisolators are satisfactory devices. Rise and fall time for the optoisolator should be less than 2 microseconds.

The standard connector used for MIDI is a 5 pin DIN. Separate jacks (and cable runs) are used for input and output, clearly marked on a given device (ie, the MIDI IN and OUT are two separate DIN female panel mount jacks). 50 feet is the recommended maximum cable length. Cables are shielded twisted pair, with the shield connecting pin 2 at both ends. The pair is pins 4 and 5. Pins 1 and 3 are not used, and should be left unconnected.

A device may also be equipped with a MIDI THRU jack which is used to pass the MIDI IN signal to another device. The MIDI THRU transmission may not be performed correctly due to the delay time (caused by the response time of the opto-isolator) between the rising and falling edges of the square wave. These timing errors will tend to add in the "wrong direction" as more devices are daisy-chained to other device's MIDI THRU jacks. The result is that there is a limit to the number of devices that can be daisy-chained.


A schematic of a MIDI (IN and OUT) interface